. . . for readers of
The Enduring Journey of the USS Chesapeake
Chapter 1    Chapter 2    Chapter 3    Chapter 4    Chapter 5    Chapter 6    Chapter 7

  Chapter 1: Timbers

 Discussion of trees, timbers and their use in British and American warships was supported from a number of sources. The description of “pregnant” trees appeared in Philosophical Transactions, Number 192, dated 1691. The journal Mariner’s Mirror is a source of much debate and discussion of maritime history, and  Robert Albion’s “ Timber problem of the Royal Navy 1652-1862” can be found in Vol 38 no 1 1952. Also helpful from the journal of The Canadian Nautical Research Society, The Northern Mariner/Le marin du nord,  was Julian Gwyn’s "The Halifax Naval Yard and Mast Contractors, 1775 – 1815." Peter Lockyer’s dissertation Wooden Ships in Hampshire – Launching, Breaking and Disposal 1700-1850 University of Portsmouth May, 2003 was finely detailed and interesting. 

The challenge of St. Simon’s Island, Georgia is well-written in Live Oaking: Southern Timber for Tall Ships by Virginia Steele Wood, Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1981. Other sources of St. Simon’s history are the Glynn County website, and St. Simon’s Experience.

Histories of the building of the “Six Frigates” including the Chesapeake don’t always agree with each other precisely. Ian Toll’s recent, thorough and fascinating Six Frigates is authoritative by default, but other sources abound on the Internet. And another book used heavily for Enduring Journey was The Chesapeake: Biography of a Ship by Charles B. Cross, Jr. published by the Norfolk County Historical Society of Chesapeake, Virginia in 1968.

A very detailed collection of notes by Chesapeake shipbuilder Josiah Fox, is found in the Josiah Fox Papers in the collection of Ernest J. Wesson, Mansfield, Ohio 1935, with annotations by Mr. Wesson. A Calendar of the Papers of Josiah Fox is held by the Mariner’s Museum, North America’s best museum of maritime history.

The confounding problem of knowing the number of guns carried by the Chesapeake at various times is demonstrated by this difference between The Naval History Center and this example of a War of 1812 history. Other numbers abound. And an honest reference to the controversy over what remains of the original USS Constellation can be found at the Baltimore Maritime Museum.

 Chapter 2: A Matter of Identity

The intricacies of British impressment and it’s effect on the citizens of other nations is amply covered in written history. A very helpful resource for understanding of the Chesapeake-Leopard incident as it related to impressment, including James Barron’s descriptions of his four crew members taken by the British, can be found in the Mariner’s Mirror, “More Light on the Chesapeake,” By Anthony Steele, Vol 39 no 4 1953. Another good source of information about impressment can be found in "Royal Navy Impressment During the American Revolution,"  by Roland G. Usher, Jr. in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 4 3/1951, published by the Organization of American Historians and available online through JSTOR.

A succinct narrative of the development of the Navy and other related issues, including impressment, can be found at The Mariner’s Museum website.
Microfilms of Norfolk newspaper accounts of the event in 1807 can be found at the Norfolk Public Library, and the library at Old Dominion University, Norfolk.

 The fight against the Barbary pirates is described with relevant paintings on the Naval Historical Center website.

James Fenimore Cooper’s History of the Navy of the United States can be found in full on Google Books. Other small details in this chapter are gleaned from Ian Toll’s Six Frigates, and The Chesapeake: Biography of a Ship by Charles B. Cross, Jr. published by the Norfolk County Historical Society of Chesapeake, Virginia in 1968.

 Chapter 3: A Funeral in Halifax

James Fenimore Cooper’s role in the history of the U.S. Navy can be found in “The Naval Career of James Fenimore Cooper” by Louis Bollander and published in the United States Naval Institute Proceedings Vol 66 number 446 April, 1940. A number of good websites are devoted to Cooper. His History of the Navy of the United States can be found online, as noted above, as can Ned Myers or, a Life Before the Mast.

Museums devoted to the legacy of James Lawrence are the Burlington County Historical Society, and the
Gloucester County Historical Society, which holds the beautifully colored drawing by the young James Lawrence shown on page 53.

A tremendous resource for this chapter, as well as following chapters, is Admiral P.B.V. Broke – A Memoir by Rev. J.G. Brighton, M.D., published in 1866. His recounting of the battle between the USS Chesapeake and HMS Shannon is just one of hundreds written up to present times, but the memoir places it in the larger context of the people involved and their times, including the Halifax funeral of James Lawrence and the building of the Chesapeake Mill. Another resource is The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History edited  by Michael Crawford, Naval Historical Center, Washington 2002.

Resources on the history of Halifax, Nova Scotia abound everywhere, but two of particular note are The History of Halifax City by Thomas Akins, published by the Nova Scotia Historical Society in 1895, and Halifax, Warden of the North by Thomas Raddall, published by Doubleday, Garden City, NJ, 1965. The Clockmaker; or, The Savings and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slickville by Thomas Halliburton is available online. 

The controversy over the Schetky and Wallis versions of the ensign on the Chesapeake as it entered Halifax Harbour is mentioned in a wonderful article on the popular culture results of the Chesapeake - Shannon duel in the British Art Journal Vol 3 no 2, August 2006 by Ann V. Gunn.

   Chapter 4: The Plowshare
The late Bruce Tappenden was the last private owner of the Chesapeake Mill. He was also a prolific historian of the Meon River Valley and a source for much of the information in this chapter. His book A History of Wickham was first published in 1996 and revised in 2006, published by the Wickham History Society. It offers a compact, but exceedingly thorough history of the village, starting with its first settlements. The County of Hampshire's website  also offers a great deal of history, with art and photographs.

The Domesday Book offers probably the most comprehensive inventory of the buildings, tools and infrastructure of a nation at the start of the second millennium to be found anywhere. And the Hampshire Map Site on the internet is a thorough journey through the history of the region, its place names, and the writings of other travelers since the beginning of recorded history.

Mr. Tappenden’s dissertation “The Mill at Wickham, Hampshire,” given at the University of Portsmouth, 1986, is available at the University library. It is a thorough treatment of the mill’s history, ownership, mechanical operation and business records. A short history book published by The Chesapeake Mill is also helpful. Hampshire Mills Group is the steward of the past and future of mills in the County of Hampshire.

The Virginia Calendar of State Papers and Other Manuscripts Preserved in the Capitol at Richmond (1652-1869) is a source of first and second-hand accounts of the history of those years, including events surrounding the USS Chesapeake, especially in 1807. The sighting of the HMS Chesapeake in Chesapeake Bay is described in the entry “1814, April 15, Onancock.” 

As we approach 2012, the War of 1812 will no doubt be remembered and debated among historians, and many others will learn about it for the first time. Among the best contemporary books are those of Donald Hickey. The Naval War of 1812 by Theodore Roosevelt is available online, and a good website for further exploration of the effect of the war on US/UK/Canada history can be found here.

 Chapter 5: The Return

The city of Portsmouth, England was right at the center of D-Day activities, and its D-Day Museum is an excellent on-site and online source of first hand information about the invasion that finally changed the course of World War II. More information can be found in the excellent system of Portsmouth Museums

The past and present story of the USS Constitution can be found on its official website.

News reporting on the attempts to conserve the mill can be found in the online archives of the Hampshire Chronicle, the Portsmouth News and the Telegraph. Use the search term “Chesapeake Mill.”

The Cambridge American Cemetery is found here.  

  Chapter 6: The Lost Cemetery 
First-hand accounts of life at Melville Island Prison can be found in three wonderful books available online:
A Journal of a Young Man of Massachussets
The Diary of Benjamin F. Palmer: Privateersman
Ned Myers: or A Life before the Mast by James Fenimore Cooper

Iris Shea and Heather Watts have written a well-illustrated contemporary book about Melville Island, Deadman’s, available through the authors.

The identities of all 188 American casualties of the War of 1812 buried on Deadman’s Island can be found in this book.

The history of Dartmoor Prison in England is found on the historic prison’s
website. There is an ongoing effort to restore its American cemetery.

The role that Halifax played in the aftermath of the sinking of the Titanic is told on a Nova Scotia government

Accounts of the Halifax Explosion of 1917 abound. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) maintains a
website devoted to the event, and the Lessons Learned page is of special interest. Former PBS news anchor Robert MacNeil is a native of Halifax, and his novel Burden of Desire is set against the backdrop of the explosion. The CBC digital archives contain an interview with Mr. MacNeil about the event, conducted in Halifax Harbour.

The New York Times article about Deadman’s Island can be found

  Chapter 7: The Souls of a Ship
The Naval Shipyard Museum in Portsmouth,Virginia overlooks the working waterfronts shared by Portsmouth and Norfolk. Further history is offered by the Norfolk Naval Shipyard

A website devoted the Chesapeake / Shannon Memorial in Point Pleasant Park also contains pictures and links to other relevant places and memorials in greater Halifax.

More information about the cemetery at Trinity Church, Manhattan can be found here.

The Memorial at Vimy Ridge, France celebrates an important turning point, both in World War I and the history of Canada. 

News accounts of the memorial services at Deadman’s Island can be found in the archives of the Halifax Herald dated June 24,2000 for the first memorial, and here and here for the 2005 memorial, among many other places.

Some of the Hampshire County Council records regarding the mill can be found by entering “Chesapeake” in the search box. 

The New York Times Magazine Supplement of May 22, 1898 reported on the condition of the mill near the end of the 19th century. Another article about the Chesapeake / Shannon battle, with numerous pictures, was printed in the New York Times of June 1. 1913.

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